سوگیری‌های شناختی ذهن انسان در پذیرش باورهای دینی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه معارف اهل البیت (ع)، دانشکده الهیات و معارف اهل البیت (ع)، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

علوم شناختی دین حوزه‌ای نوظهور از علوم شناختی است که بینش‌هایی را از شاخه‌های مختلف علمی گرد می‌آورد تا تبیین کند انسان‌ها چگونه باورهای دینی را کسب می‌کنند و انتقال می‌دهند. از نظر محققان علوم شناختی دین، مکانیزم‌های ذهنی و شناختی انسان دارای جهت‌گیری‌ها و سوگیری‌های خاصی هستند که او را مستعد پذیرش و انتقال باورهای دینی می‌کنند. در این مقاله، ضمن بررسی مشخصه‌ها و ویژگی‌های این سوگیری‌ها و نحوۀ عملکرد آنها، نشان می‌دهیم که گرچه تمایلات شناختیِ ذاتی انسان ذهن‌های ما را پذیرای دین به طور کلّی می‌کند، اما آنها به خودی خود ظهور و موفقیت باورها و اعمال دینی را که مختص یک فرهنگ خاص هستند تبیین نمی‌کنند. به علاوه نشان خواهیم داد که هرچند مدافعان تبیین‌های شناختی مطالعۀ دین را به عنوان پدیده‌ای «طبیعی» در دستور کار خود قرار داده و می‌کوشند علل طبیعی شکل‌گیری، پذیرش، تقویت و شیوع باورهای دینی را کشف کنند، تلاش‌های آنها به معنای کاستن از اعتبار باورهای دینی و همچنین نفی تبیین‌های «غیرطبیعی» از باورهای دینی نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cognitive Biases of the Human Mind in the Acceptance of Religious Beliefs

نویسنده [English]

  • Sayyed Mahdi Biabanaki
Assistant Professor, Department of Ahl- Al Bayt Studies, Faculty of Theology and Ahl- Al Bayt Studies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The cognitive science of religion is an emerging field of cognitive science that gathers insights from different disciplines to explain how humans acquire and transmit religious beliefs. According to scholars of the cognitive science of religion, the mental and cognitive mechanisms of the human being have particular orientations and biases that make him susceptible to the acceptance and transmission of religious beliefs. In this essay, while examining the characteristics of these biases and the way they work, we show that although our innate cognitive tendencies make our minds generally receptive to religion, they cannot alone explain the emergence and proliferation of religious beliefs and practices specific to a particular culture. We will also show that although advocates of cognitive explanations put the study of religion as a natural phenomenon on their agenda and seek to discover the natural causes of the formation, acceptance, reinforcement, and prevalence of religious beliefs, their efforts do not reject the validity of religious beliefs as well as the possibility of non-natural explanations of religious beliefs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive Science of Religion
  • Cognitive Biases
  • Intuitive Religious Beliefs
  • Reflective Religious Beliefs
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