عنوان مقاله [English]
The nature of salvation, the path leading to it and its different degrees, and determining those who will attain salvation are important issues which scholars and theologians of various traditions, have tried to answer. al-Ġazālī bases his view on salvation on a series of Ashʿarite theological principles, his theory of allegorical interpretation and his mystical thought. According to Ashʿarite doctrines, the relation between an action and its consequence cannot be considered essential or necessary, and therefore eternal salvation or damnation is not necessarily the result of one’s actions and thoughts. However, according to al-Ġazālī, here lies a hidden cause which can only be elucidated by meditation. He considers the Hereafter as the hidden reality of this world. He attempts to present a mystical explanation for the blessings and punishments of the Hereafter. Also, based on the apparent meaning of traditions, he believes faith to be the necessary condition for salvation, and that all believers will attain salvation in the end. But what increases the number of people attaining salvation is that the way, in which faith is found as a heartfelt belief, is extraneous. Furthermore, determining the domain of faith of different Islamic sects, on base of allegorical interpretation provided for the five levels of the existence, indicates al-Ġazālī’s attempt to broaden the sphere of salvation; although, he is biased in his introduction of the sect which will attain salvation and the sect which are the pagans of the Islamic nation.