واقع‌گرایی در فلسفهٔ دین ویلیام جیمز

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه تطبیقی دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران (نویسندۀ مسئول)

2 استاد گروه فلسفه اخلاق دانشگاه قم، قم ، ایران

چکیده

علاقهٔ اصلی جیمز به موضوع دین معطوف به نتایج عملی باور دینی در زندگی واقعی شخص صاحب باور بوده است. رهیافت عام او برای توجیه صدق باور دینی نیز توسل به همین نتایج است. همین زمینه و برخی از اظهارات خود جیمز در خصوص ملاک صدق باور سبب شده است که برخی از مفسران جیمز او را فیلسوفی بدانند که تلاش کرده تا «عمل‌گرایی» را همچون بدیلی برای «واقع‌گرایی» در عرصهٔ متافیزیک، معرفت‌شناسی و فلسفهٔ دین مطرح کند. در این مقاله با استناد به مجموع بیانات جیمز در باب صدق باور و نیز آرای او در زمینهٔ تجربهٔ دینی نادرستی تفسیر یادشده نشان داده و ثابت می‌شود که در نظریهٔ صدق جیمز وجود واقعیات مستقل از ذهن پیش‌فرض گرفته شده و التزام جیمز به عمل‌گرایی در عرصهٔ توجیه باور دینی منافاتی با التزام او به واقع‌گرایی دینی، یعنی دیدگاه قائل به وجود قابل شناخت و مستقل از ذهن موضوع باور دینی، ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Realism in William James's Philosophy of Religion

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Haj Zeinolabedini 1
  • Mohsen Javadi 2
1 PhD Student of Comparative Philosophy, University of Qom, Qom, Iran (Corresponding Author)
2 Professor at the Department of Philosophy of Ethics, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

James's primary interest in religion was directed to practical consequences of religious belief in believer's real life. His general approach to justify the truth of religious belief is resorting to these same consequences. Due to this background and due to some of James's own statements regarding his theory of truth according to which he identifies the truth of a belief with its practical utility, some interpreters have interpreted him as a philosopher who attempted to present pragmatism as an alternative to realism in metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of religion. In this article, relying on the whole James's statements concerning his theory of truth and focusing on his views about religious experience, the incorrectness of that interpretation will be shown and it will be proved that James's theory of truth presupposes mind-independent realities and he doesn't reduce truth to utility; and his commitment to pragmatism in providing justification for religious belief is not incompatible with his commitment to religious realism, the view that there is some knowable mind-independent object for religious belief.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • William James
  • pragmatism
  • Realism
  • theory of truth
  • Philosophy of Religion
  • religious belief
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