نظریۀ انگیزش الهیِ زاگزبسکی دربارۀ نسبت دین و اخلاق

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه دین دانشگاه تهران، پردیس قم، قم، ایران (نویسنده مسئول)

2 استاد گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

نظریۀ انگیزش الهی نظریه‏ای است اخلاقی با بنیاد الهیاتی که در تلاش است، با خوانشی نو–ارسطویی و انگیزش–محور، نسبت بین دین و اخلاق را در چارچوب الهیات مسیحی تبیین کند. این نظریه که لیندا زاگزبسکی آن را مطرح کرده است، گونه‏ای نو از اخلاق فضیلت‏مدار را عرضه می‏کند که در آن انگیزه‏های الهی، به خصوص انگیزۀ عشق، بنیادِ حیات و زیستِ اخلاقی‏اند و این انگیزه‏ها هم به لحاظ وجودشناختی و هم به لحاظ تبیین‏شناختی پایۀ تمام اوصاف و ارزش‏های اخلاقی در نظر گرفته می‏شوند. این نظریه برای پیش‏برد مقصد خود از پنج گام بهره می‏برد. در گام اول تشخص خدا را اثبات می‏کند. در گام دوم نشان می‏دهد که خداوند از عالی‏ترین فضایل و انگیزه‏ها بهره‏مند است. در گام سوم انگیزۀ خداوند در فعل خلقت را انگیزۀ عشق معرفی می‏کند و آن را پایه‏ای‏ترین انگیزۀ الهی به شمار می‏آورد. در گام چهارم آموزۀ تشبه به خدا را پی‏گیری می‏کند و بر نقایص جدی این آموزه تأکید می‏کند. در گام آخر تلاش می‏کند تا این آموزه را با آموزۀ تجسد مسیح عجین کند و از نقایص آن بکاهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Zagzebski’s Theory of Divine Motivation about the Relation of Religion and Morality

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shima Shahriyari 1
  • Mohsen Javady 2
1 PhD Student of Philosophy of Religion, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding Author)
2 Professor at the Department of Islamic Philosophy and Kalam, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Divine Motivation theory is an ethical theory with a theological foundation, attempting to explain the relation between religion and morality in the context of Christian theology with emphasizing on neo-Aristotelian and motivation-based ethics. This theory that is presented by Linda Zagzebski, provides a new form of virtue ethics that God's motives, especially that of love, are foundations of moral life and these motivational states are considered ontologically and explanatorily the basis for all moral properties and values. This theory uses five steps to advance its destination. In the first step, this theory proves the personhood of God. In the second step, it argues that God has perfect virtues and motives. In the third step, it shows that God's motive in the Creation is motive of love that is the central and fundamental divine motive. In the fourth step, it discusses the doctrine of imitatio Dei and focuses on the problems of this doctrine. In the last step, it attempts to link this doctrine to the doctrine of the incarnation to resolve its problems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Divine Motivation theory
  • religion
  • morality
  • divine motives
  • imitatio Dei
  • doctrine of the Incarnation
  • Zagzebski
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