جان مک داول و واقع گرایی اخلاقی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فلسفه و حکمت اسلامی دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، تهران، ایران

چکیده

نوشتۀ حاضر به بررسی واقع‌گرایی اخلاقی جان مک داول اختصاص یافته است.بدین منظور ابتدا به تعریف واقع‌گرایی به طور عام وواقع‌گرایی اخلاقی به طور خاص پرداخته شده است.پس از آن دیدگاه مکی در باب نفی واقعی بودن ارزش‌ها و خاصه‌های اخلاقی به دلیل در گیر نبودن در تبیین‌های علی آورده شده است. بعد از آن به دیدگاه داول به عنوان پاسخی به نظریۀ مکی پرداخته شده است.داول با رد برداشت مکی از کیفیات ثانویه نشان میدهد که هم کیفیات ثانویه وهم خاصه‌های اخلاقی به نحوی انفسی است و وابستگی به انسان دارند؛ ولی این نوع وابستگی نافی واقعی بودن آن‌ها نیست.داول در نهایت با ارائۀ تبیینی غیرعلی در باب ارزش‌ها ونفی انحصاری بودن ملاک واقعی بودن اشیاء در ملاک تبیین علی،سعی میکند با گسترش دامنۀ واقعی بودن اشیاء، واقعی بودن خاصه‌های اخلاقی را اثبات کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

John McDowell and Ethical Realism

نویسنده [English]

  • Majid Molla-Yousef
Assistant professor in Department of Islamic Philosophy and Hikmah, Imam Khomeini International University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This article discusses John McDowell’s ethical realism. It first gives a definition of realism in its broad sense and then gets to its particular meaning. Afterwards, Mackie’s view about the negation of the reality of values and ethical properties due to their not being involved in causal explanation is given. This is followed by McDowell’s response to the previous claim. McDowell, while rejecting Mackie’s understanding of secondary qualities, demonstrates that both secondary qualities and ethical properties are somehow introversive and depend on humans, but this dependency doesn’t contradict their reality. Ultimately, McDowell by giving a non-causal explanation of values and negating the exclusiveness of criteria for the reality of things in causal explanation, tries to expand the scope of the reality of things, and there fore to prove the reality of ethical properties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ethical realism
  • ethical objectivity
  • ethical values
  • secondary quality
  • primary quality
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