عنوان مقاله [English]
Referriing to causation and raising the question whether a single meaning is intended by the term "cause" in its various usages, Parkinson deals in the present article with the context, background, and the way of raising "Four Causes" of Aristotle. He also refers to the development occurred in understanding this issue due to the translation of Greek texts into Latin.
Further, he surveys various usages of the term "cause" as Hume states, and examines the latter three criteria for the recognition of the relation of cause and effect. Thus he refers to two significant differences between Hume and J.S. Mill, s explanations.
Finally, he surveys Collingwood, s view on three different meanings of "cause" in detail, and compares the historical cause of Collingwood with the final cause of Aristotle, thus mentioning teleological explanation and distinguishing the two types of internal and external teleology. At the end, he examines the views of Russel, Davidson, Taylor, Bennett, and Woodfield, and comes to the conclusion that presentation of teleological explanations requires not only recognizing the effect of a cause, but establishing the goodness of the effect from a particular perspective. Therefore, the type of explanation involves both causal and value indices.