عنوان مقاله [English]
Kant is considered one of the most influential philosophers of the west on philosophical thought, science, and religion in the modern age. His significance may be justified by the point that the history of modern philosophy can be divided into the pre-Kant and post-Kant periods.
It was through Kant, s philosophy that the modern attitude of man toward being, having begun with Descartes, reached its ideal. So after Kant, philosophy and metaphysics took on a new approach through which science and religion gained a new meaning and identity.
From one perspective, the subjects of the philosophical thought of Kant are man, God, and universe, and from another perspective they are science, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and art. Anyhow, kant counts man, and his abilies as the main axis of his philosophical research in his principal works such as "Critique of Pure Reason", and "Critique of Practical Reason". This man enjoys cognitive, ethical, religious, artistic, and other abilities.
The present article concentrates more on knowledge, ethics, and religion. Kant considers man as the axis of being since he recognizes the classification of universe, perception of reality, ethics, science, and religion just in the light of abilities, will, and duty of man. This is the very human – oriented science and religion or humanization of science and religion.
Meanwhile the actual world of this man is the phenomena universe, i.e. the reality of religion and science is recognized in this very experimental universe, and merely based on the limited capacity and will of human being. Consequently, there is no reality beyond the material world and man, s wishes and abilities.