عنوان مقاله [English]
Natural kind terms are those linguistic expressions which refer to the specific kinds. Usually it is supposed that it is its meaning that communicates between a natural kind term and its referent. This is the view that is called traditional theory of reference. According to this theory, every general term has a meaning in the mind and by understanding this meaning we can refer to its extension. This theory has been criticized in two directions: the first is the view that meaning is in the mind and the second is that meaning communicates between a term and its referent. In this paper I will explain the traditional theory of reference concentrating on Locke’s views and will explain the other philosopher’s views such as Frege and Putnam. Putnam’s theory of reference criticizes both aspects of traditional theory. At the end of the paper I will refer to the criticisms on Putnam’s theory.