عنوان مقاله [English]
Unity of existence is one of the major claims and at the same time a much debated and challenging issue of mystics. Among the philosophical systems of the Islamic world, Mulla sadra who was specifically interested in mystical notions, believed he was the first to give a philosophical explanation of the unity of existence. Later on, controversies occurred in interpreting Mulla Sadra’s intention. His ability to prove the gradation unity of being was indisputable, but the controversy was whether this conformed with unity of existence as intended by mystics.
Some advocates of this philosophical system were of the opinion that the only rational explanation of unity of existence is the same gradation unity of being. A second group believed that the basic claim of mysticism goes well beyond this and Mulla Sadra could transcend the gradation unity of being and reach the core of mysticism, i.e individual unity of existence.
One way to judge these opinions is the philosophical consideration of arguments and prerequisites set by pros and cons of the possibility of individual unity of existence in transcendental philosophy. The article first speaks about three reasons given by the advocates of transition from gradation unity of being to individual unity of existence. Then the reasonings presentable for disputing the acceptance of individual unity of existence in transcendental philosophy are examined. Finally, it is assessed whether one can accept individual unity of existence as something beyond gradation unity of existence by utilizing philosophical and intelligible arguments in transcendental philosophy.